Casarano is a town and the sixth most populous municipality in the Italian province of Lecce, in the Apulia region of South-East Italy. The town's economy is mostly agriculture-based, with olive oil being the main product. The Church of Santa Maria Della Croce is one of the oldest Christian sites in the world. The population as of December 2004 was 20,544. It is twinned with Charleroi, Belgium.